multimeter measuring instrument that worn to measures voltage, electricity current, and arrest (resistansi). that explanation multimeter in general, while in the development multimeter still can be used for a few function like to measures temperature, induktansi, frequency, and as it. there also that called as vom (volt/ohm meter) that can measures tension (voltmeter), obstacle (ohm-meter), also current (amper-meter). there two categories multimeter: multimeter digital or dmm (digital multi-meter)(untuk bew and accurateer the measurement result), and multimeter analog. each category can measures electricity ac, also electricity dc.

 kind kind multimeter

1. multimeter analog

multimeter analog more many worn for use everyday, like artisans servis television or computer majority use analog kind.

2. multimeter digital

multimeter digital has tall accuracy, and use more many in comparison with multimeter analog. that is has unit additions carefuler, and also measurement option more many, not limited to ampere, volt, and ohm

c. surplus and deficit

1. multimeter manual
the surplus in the reading with display more simple. while the deficit low the accuracy, so for measurement that need tall accuracy best uses multimeter digital.

2. multimeter digital
multimeter digital usually worn in watchfulness or works measures that need tall neatness, but this time quite a few computer repair shops and service center that wear multimeter digital. the deficit difficult to monitor tension unstable. so when do tension measurement that move to fluctuate, best use multimeter analog.

chapter ii
measuring instrument function
multimeter measuring instrument that consist of federation several measuring instrument that one. multimeter standard usually consist of amperemeter, voltmeter and ohm meter so that multimeter often also called with avo meter.
function multimeter:
1. measures tension dc/ voltmeter
2. measures tension ac/voltmeter
3. measures strong dc/ammeter current
4. measures obstacle value a resistor/ohm meter
addition function:
5. check correlate-short / connection
6. check transistor
7. check electrolyte capacitor
8. check diode
9. check inductor
10. measures temperature (type certain)

chapter iii
multimeter often used in measurement besaran electricity. besides this tool also or usually called avo (ampere, volt, and ohm) meter that a measuring instrument that can be used to measures strong electricity current (i) with unit ampere, measures voltage (v) with unit volt, and to measures electricity arrest magnitude (? ) with unit ohm.
use multimeter this is besides to measures besaran also very good for look for electricity and find disturbance that at all of aeroplane kind or electronic equipment.

chapter iv
step its use

result reading size multimeter:
· in multimeter digital value that measuresed can direct be read in menyplay
· in multimeter analog value that measuresed got from needle designation in scale board then adjusted with limit size.

read scale ohmmeter:
· scale ohmmeter usually lay in topmost scale board, the feature number 0 present beside right and menyebelahnya there simbol ohm.
· to determine value resistor that measuresed its way with multiplying number that by indicator needle is multiplyinged with limit size.
· example: needle example indicates to number 5 and limit position size in x100, so value resistor 5 x100 = 5.000 ohm or 5kohm.
· in several multimeter there the scale board is discriminated between scale x1 and scale x1k.

read scale voltmeter-amperemeter (v-a):
· scale v-a usually situated under scale ohmmeter, the feature number 0 present beside left and menyebelahnya there sign v-a.
· differ from ohmmeter, scale v-a usually there more than one, based on limit size existing.
· example: multimeter that has limit size 0.25,2.5, 10,50,250, and 1000 so there 3 scale sizes that is 10,50 and 250.
· the reading manner direct determine value as according to number that by indicator needle with pay attention which scale size that worn.
· our example uses limit size 2.5 so scale size that worn scale 250v then number that by needle indicator is divided with 100. number 100 got from 250v divided 2.5
· example: moment measures stone tension battery 1.5 v so limit size we arrange on course 2.5v, so that worn scale line 250. needle for example indicates at position 150 mean tagangan battery 150/100 = 1.5 volt

v to measures tagangan ac the steps:
1. in the first place must be rememberred that what is be measuresed that is tension ac or
2. we are size tension ac.
3. must be rememberred also limit size. electricity network for example pln 220 volt.
4. limit electric switch size indicate ac volt, to number higher from limit
size, example to number 250 volt.
5. will paste up stick one to + dn other to - because that be measuresed
the current current back and forth.
6. when does mengukut this indicator needle for example indicate number 220, this
mean tension pln there 220 volt. of course scale that worn
left limit 0 and right limit 250.
manner measuress tension dc
to measures tension dc according to principle not change it with ac. only necessary be payed cable stick measuring instrument must be band/embeddinged in pole from tension source. measurement steps, as follows:

1. necessary payed limit size, stick red () and stick black (-),
anode (+) and pole negati (-).
2. instruct electric switch indicates to dc volt. measurement that done in
current conditon flows (dinamic measurement), electric switch in number 10.3. time holds measurement, stick red () laided in () and
stick black (-) laided in (-).
4. read scale 0-10. for example indicates number 1,5 this mean
current tension = 1,5 volt. if our electric switch aims at number 50, so
electric switch that read scale 0 - 50.
measures strong current dc
to measures kuar current in a series must in a state of opened. the steps as follows:
1. this tool only can be used to size strong current dc. strong current
dc usually little. therefore this tool only pins up number
measurement until 500 ma.
2. measures strong current dc done by connection series by means of
user, electric light bulb for example. indicator electric switch is aimed in dc ma
with pay attention limit size. chosen misalnyaangka 25.3. here we measures in a state of opened connection. therefore decide
4. paste up stick red in anode () and stick black (-) in pole
negatip (-).
5. read scale, needle indicates in what number. that's the measurement result.

chapter v
 use multitester as volt meter

pair black cable to com (ground), and pair red cable to extreme right hole (v/ohm). determine object measurement, for example will measures battere nokia berkapasitas 3,7v.
see scale in multitester pd part v (volt) there two that is:
dc volt -- (unidirectional tension): tension batere, teg. output ic power, etc (found polarity + and -) ac volt" (tension bolak return): tension pln, and of a kind it. usually yg used in low-tension current measurement likes handphone measurement, etc chosen yg dc volt – after choose scale dc volt, there nilai2 as described in part dc volt that.
200mv will mean will measures tension maximal 0,2 volt 
2v will mean will measures tension maximal 2 volt
20v will mean will measures tension maximal 20 volt
200v will mean will measures tension maximal 200v
750v will mean will measures tension maximal 750v
use correct scale for measurement, example battere 3,6 volt use scale in 20v. so the result accurate example will be read: 3,76 volt. if use scale 2 v will appear number 1 (sign overload/ will exceed scale) if use scale 200v be read the result but inaccurate mis be read: 3,6v or 3,7 v (1digit comma hind) if use 750v can but the result will be read 3 or 4 volt (rounded off lsg without comma)
after object measurement there [are], and scale has been chosen correct so do measurement with embedding kab el red to positive battere and black cable to negative batere. will appear the measurement result. if cable upside down the result permanent will appear, but there negative sign in front of the result. difference with multitester analog. if cable upside down needle finished to left

nb: if multitester there button dh, mean data hold. if depressed so the result freeze, and can be registerred the result.

ø use multitester as capacity surveyor condensator
condenser (capasitor) a tool that can keep energy in electricity field, by gather internal imbalance from electricity. has unit that called farad. found by michael faraday (1791-1867).
condenser now also known as" capacitor" , but word" condenser" still worn up to in this time.
first called by alessandro volta a italian scientist in the year 1782 (from language itali condensatore), with reference to tool ability to keep a tall electricity membanding another component.
majority language and country doesn't use english stills to threaten in italian language word" condensatore" , like french condensateur, indonesia and german condenser or spain condensador.
condenser mengidentikkan has two foots and two poles that is positive and negative with has electrolyte liquid and usually formed tube.
while kind the other one again majority lower the capacity value, doesn't has positive pole or negative in the foot, majority tan flat globular, red, green and another likes tablet or coat button often called capacitor (capacitor).
but habit and condition with language articulation every country depend on society a more regular mention it. now person habit only mention one of [the] name dominantest used or a more regular is heard. in present day, condenser often called capacitor (capacitor) and or on the contrary which is on electronics science is abbreviated with font (c).
unit in condenser is called farad. one farad = 9 x 1011 cm² that vast fragment surface be 1 farad equal to 106 microfarads (µf), so 1 µf = 9 x 105 cm².

square centimetre units (cm²) used because less practise, unit many used:
1 farad = 1.000.000 µf (micro farad)
1 µf = 1.000.000 pf (piko farad)
1 µf = 1.000 nf (nano farad)
1 nf = 1.000 pf (piko farad)
1 pf = 1.000 µµf (micro farad)
measurement step:
1. choose part scale f and choose scale yg appropriate.
2. so value yg come up that condenser capacity value dgn unit farad or micro farad (10 ranks -6) or nano farad (10 ranks -9) or piko farad (10 ranks -12) farad.
3. use multitester digital as stripe surveyor (kontinuitas)
a. choose scale buzzer, existing icon sound or there led he. if cable
tester red and black be embeddinged direct so multitester
sound stripe sign ok. without obstacle (<50 ohm). b. choose object measurement. example will measures stripe power on from ic uem foot p7 to switch on off. patch one of [the] cable (free yg which aja) to foot switch on off, one again to foot ic uem p7 or capasitor bearness. if sound so good stripe sign and linked. otherwise sound, try to what sudag true the measurement location. if ascertained stripe has brokened off and must at jumper. ø use multitester as series ammeter galvanometer 1. move red cable to 20a. and permanent black cable at com (ground). be chosen hole 20a because will measures current yg > 0,2 a.
for example will measures admission filling current battere. one of [the] manner among others one of [the] cable charger cut.
2. cable is embeddinged to red cable black cable multitester. do measurement moment handphone mencharger. value for example yg as described 0,725 mean admission filling current as big as 0,725 a alais 725 ma. or pull fuse (fuse) then paste up masing cable to each fuse pole in pcb. then size the result.
measures batere lithium original or faked.
1. permanent red cable at 20a, black cable at gnd.
2. permanent scale at 20a
3. patch red cable at + batere
4. patch kbl black at – batere
5. see result yg appear:
if reflexly, indicate to certain number and return to zero, sign batere lithium original.
if the result indicates to certain number, and stable. sign batere lithium faked, and soon pull cable from batere. because batere will be hot. . because mendalamya there is no the controlling series.
to batere lithium original, although kbl menempel then to batere, tdk problem. . .
so it often hot handphone or even explode moment mencharging. because use batere lithium faked, there is no the controlling series. so that moment batere full, censor btemp doesn't work. so batere that full then content so that will be hot hot and final can cause damage in handphone, or even can batere be puffed up and can explode.

chapter vi
1. at first electric switch multimeter memputar to on. arrow sign to on precisely r x ohm
2. calibrate until needle multimeter show number zero correct moment two stick () and stick (-) related. roll adjusment to accustom.

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